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Alejandro H. Toselli, Enrique Vidal, Joan Puigcerver, Ernesto Noya-García. Probabilistic multi-word spotting in handwritten text images. Pattern Analysis and Applications, 2019. Vol. 22 (1), pp. 23-32.

Keyword spotting techniques are becoming cost-effective solutions for information retrieval in handwritten documents. We explore the extension of the single-word, line-level probabilistic indexing approach described in our previous works to allow for page-level search of queries consisting in Boolean combinations of several single-keywords. We propose heuristic rules to combine the single-word relevance probabilities into probabilistically consistent confidence scores of the multi-word boolean combinations. An empirical study, also presented in this paper, evaluates the search performance of word-pair queries involving AND and OR Boolean operations. Results of this study support the proposed approach and clearly show its effectiveness. Finally, a web-based demonstration system based on the proposed methods is presented.