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Joan Puigcerver, Alejandro H. Toselli, Enrique Vidal. Probabilistic Interpretation and Improvements to the HMM-Filler for Handwritten Keyword Spotting. 13th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, 2015. IEEE Computer Society.

Traditionally, the HMM-Filler approach has been widely used in the fields of speech recognition and handwritten text recognition to tackle lexicon-free, query-by-string keyword spotting (KWS). It computes a score to determine whether a given keyword is written in a certain image region. It is conjectured, that this score is related to the confidence of the system, respect to the previous question. However, it is still not clear what this relationship is. In this paper, the HMM-Filler score is derived from a probabilistic formulation of KWS, which gives a better understanding of its behavior and limits. Additionally, the same probabilistic framework is used to present a new algorithm to compute the KWS scores, which results in better average precision (AP), for a keyword spotting task in the widely used IAM database. We show that the new algorithm can improve the HMM-filler results up to 10.4% relative (5.3% absolute) points in AP, in the considered task.