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On the Use of Edit Distances and an Efficient k-NN Search Technique (k-AESA) for Fast and Accurate String Classification. Proc. of the 15th Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2000), 2000. pp. 680-683.Classification based on Nearest Neighbours (NN) is a uniformly good approach to many Pattern Recognition (PR) tasks. However, two important aspects need to be taken into account to actually achieve good performance in practice. The first one is the metric or dissimilarity measure adopted to compare the considered patterns. The second is the com-putational cost incurred by the NN searching operation. As it is shown in this paper, by using the adequate techniques to cope with these two issues, NN-based classification leads to better results than those obtained by other approaches that have been applied to a task of human banded chromosomes classification.