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Diego Linares, José-Miguel Benedí, Joan-Andreu Sánchez. A Hybrid Language Model based on a Combination of N-grams and Stochastic Context-Free Grammars. ACM Trans. on Asian Language Information Processing, 2004. Vol. 3 (2), pp. 113-127.

In this paper, a hybrid language model is defined as a combination of a word-based n-gram, which is used to capture the local relations between words, and a category-based stochastic contextfree grammar (SCFG) with a word distribution into categories, which is defined to represent the long-term relations between these categories. The problem of unsupervised learning of a SCFG in General Format and in Chomsky Normal Form by means of estimation algorithms is studied. Moreover, a bracketed version of the classical estimation algorithm based on the Earley algorithm is proposed. This paper also explores the use of SCFGs obtained from a treebank corpus as initial models for the estimation algorithms. Experiments on the UPenn Treebank corpus are reported. These experiments have been carried out in terms of the test set perplexity and the word error rate in a speech recognition experiment.