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Alejandro H. Toselli, Alfons Juan, Jorge González, Ismael Salvador, Enrique Vidal, Francisco Casacuberta, Daniel Keysers, Hermann Ney. Integrated handwriting recognition and interpretation using finite-state models. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, 2004. Vol. 18 (4), pp. 519-539.

The interpretation of handwritten sentences is carried out using a holistic approach in which both text image recognition and the interpretation itself are tightly integrated. Conventional approaches follow a serial, first-recognition then-interpretation scheme which cannot adequately use semantic?pragmatic knowledge to recover from recognition errors. Stochastic finite-sate transducers are shown to be suitable models for this integration, permitting a full exploitation of the final interpretation constraints. Continuous-density hidden Markov models are embedded in the edges of the transducer to account for lexical and morphological constraints. Robustness with respect to stroke vertical variability is achieved by integrating tangent vectors into the emission densities of these models. Experimental results are reported on a syntax-constrained interpretation task which show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. These results are also shown to be comparatively better than those achieved with other conventional, N-gram-based techniques which do not take advantage of full integration.